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Class I include Clavicipitaceous endophytes and represent a small number of phylogenetically related Clavicipitaceous species that are fastidious in culture and restricted to some grasses [58,59].

However, transmission is primarily vertical with host plants pass through seed infections to the next plant [60].

Endophytes have been defined by various scientists as mutualists that colonize aerial parts of living plant tissues and do not cause symptoms of disease.

Mycorrhizal are endophytes but from a special type which produces external structures from the host plants.

This highly diverse group of fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities through increasing fitness by conferring abiotic and biotic stress tolerance.

Endophytes; Histological localization; Biodiversity and Colonization frequency; Biological roles The term “endophyte” originally introduced by de Bary (1866) refers to any organisms occurring within plant tissues, distinct from the epiphytes that live on plant surfaces.

The magnitude of fungal diversity estimated about 1.5 million (more accurately 1.62 million) species, later revised by [47] to 2.27 million.

The figure provided by Hawksworth has been widely accepted by fungal experts (Table 1) [48]. The total biodiversity of fungal endophytes may be classified in to two major categories as Balansiaceous and non- Balansiaceous endophytes.

Furthermore, fungi which spend whole or part of their life cycle colonizing inter and/or intra cellular spaces in stem, petiole, roots and leaves, inside the tissues of healthy plants, typically causing no apparent symptoms of disease are endophytic fungi [6-10].Class III endophytes are distinguished on the basis of their occurrence and horizontal transmission.This class includes endophytic fungi from vascular, nonvascular plants, woody and herbaceous angiosperms in tropical forest and antarctic communities.In the present scenario, endophytes have been isolated from all groups of plants ranging from sea grasses [27], lichens [28], palms [29,30] to large trees [19,31].Most endophytes isolated belong to ascomycetes & their anamorphs and basidiomycetes [32]. ectendomycorrhizae, ericoid mycorrhizae and pseudomycorrhizae are indistinct [33] and some mutualistic mycorrhizal fungi associated with plants of Ericaceae and Orchidaceae family have been referred to as endophytes [34,35].

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